Historical Life Course Studies https://hlcs.nl/ <p><em>Historical Life Course Studies</em> is the electronic journal of the European Historical Population Samples Network (EHPS-Net) and is published by the International Institute of Social History (IISH). The journal is the primary publishing outlet for research involved in the conversion of existing European and non-European large historical demographic databases into a common format, the Intermediate Data Structure, and for studies based on these databases. The journal publishes both methodological and substantive research articles.</p> European Historical Population Samples Network en-US Historical Life Course Studies 2352-6343 Not Like Everybody Else. Essays in Honor of Kees Mandemakers https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9556 <p>This collection of essays pays tribute to Kees Mandemaker's great contribution to the data infrastructure of social science history, in the Netherlands and elsewhere. Several essays discuss (the future of) historical databases. Yet other provide examples of research on topics covering important life course transitions. All demonstrate the scale, scope and variation of research based on well-constructed databases.</p> Jan Kok Hilde Bras Richard L. Zijdeman Copyright (c) 2021 Jan Kok, Hilde Bras, Richard L. Zijdeman https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 1 4 10.51964/hlcs9556 Strength in Numbers. A Short Note on the Past, Present and Future of Large Historical Databases https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9557 <p>Historical demography is inherently associated with constructing large-scale databases from historical records. Although there have been tremendous changes in the way they are constructed, many of the challenges remain. Throughout his career, Kees Mandemakers has been instrumental in facing some of these challenges, particularly those related to the conservation, standardization, and dissemination of databases. This short contribution discusses the evolution of large historical databases in historical demography.</p> Lionel Kesztenbaum Copyright (c) 2021 Lionel Kesztenbaum https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 5 8 10.51964/hlcs9557 Historical Databases Now and in the Future https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9558 <p>Kees Mandemakers has enriched historical databases in the Netherlands and internationally through the development of the Historical Sample of the Netherlands, the Intermediate Data Structure, a practical implementation of rule-based record linking (LINKS) and personal encouragement of high quality longitudinal data in a number of countries.</p> Kris Inwood Hamish Maxwell-Stewart Copyright (c) 2021 Kris Inwood, Hamish Maxwell-Stewart https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 9 12 10.51964/hlcs9558 Fair and Tender Data. The FAIRness of Four Databases With Historical Individual Life Course Data Tested https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9559 <p>Four databases with data on individual historical life courses are tested for FAIRness: the TRA, Umeå, HSN and IPUMS databases. All databases make their data much more Findable than they were in the original sources. But as databases, they are best findable if their name is a unique acronym, and if different sub-datasets all use that same acronym. Sensitive data have to be protected. Two databases make anonymous data sets or those only containing information on deceased individuals Accessible without any formalities, and other databases could follow this example. To increase Interoperability a large number of tools are offered by the databases. Reusability is among the raisons d’être of these databases.</p> Lex Heerma van Voss Copyright (c) 2021 Lex Heerma van Voss https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 13 18 10.51964/hlcs9559 The Life Span of Large Historical Databases https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9561 <p>Large historical databases, although intended to last for a long time, can become obsolete for a variety of reasons. In this essay these reasons are explored and used for a 'health check' of the Historical Sample of the Netherlands (HSN). The HSN leaders are examined for their visionary qualities and their sense of ownership, and the database for its complementarity, versatility and consistency. The essay concludes that, despite challenges ahead, HSN is sound of mind and body.</p> Jan Kok Copyright (c) 2021 Jan Kok https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 19 23 10.51964/hlcs9561 Historical Databases, Big and Small https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9562 <p>Big Data is a relative term, and Small Data can be equally important. Not only the volume of data defines if data is 'Big', but three more Vs characterise the term: velocity (speed of data generation and processing), veracity (referring to data quality) and variety. Perhaps the most defining is methodological: data becomes really big when new methods are needed to process and analyse it. In contrast, this paper demonstrates how even a tiny dataset can contribute to our understanding of the past, in this case of the historical geography of two provinces in Ottoman Greece in the 17th century. Graph analysis is used on a dataset of just 16 data pairs, illustrating the point that a close-up view of data complements the look from farther away at bigger data volumes.</p> Peter Doorn Copyright (c) 2021 Peter Doorn https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 24 29 10.51964/hlcs9562 Criminal Life Courses in Context https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9563 <p>The future of the Historical Sample of the Netherlands (HSN) will certainly include the enrichment of the foundational database with additional, new sources of information. In general, the HSN would highly benefit from current mass digitization projects involving citizen science. This essay proposes a pilot in linking 19th- and early 20th-century criminal records to HSN. In spite of the extensive state and parish registration documenting individual and family lives in close systematic detail, life course approaches to historical crime are less common. The large datasets necessary to conduct longitudinal life course research into deviant behaviour will facilitate both the analysis of criminality as an event and the scrutiny of the trajectories of individuals' lives leading up to their involvement in crime.</p> Sanne Muurling Evelien Walhout Copyright (c) 2021 Sanne Muurling, Evelien Walhout https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 30 33 10.51964/hlcs9563 Enriching the HSN With Individual Causes of Death. A Database for a Life-Course Analysis of Victims and Survivors https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9564 <p>The focus of this article is on how a newly created database on causes of death in Amsterdam (1854–1940) may offer innovative insights by combining it with the available information from the Historical Sample of the Netherlands (HSN). By doing so, it illustrates how future research can help to provide new perspectives on ongoing debates on historical and contemporary infectious diseases by combining information from several historical sources and databases.</p> Tim Riswick Copyright (c) 2021 Tim Riswick https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 34 40 10.51964/hlcs9564 The HSN and the Netherlands Indies: Challenge and Promise https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9565 <p>In 2000 Kees Mandemakers and I started a project to trace the life courses of Dutch migrants to the Netherlands Indies. This article describes the process of data collection, the research questions and the project's main findings that have been published in various articles and a monograph. Two conclusions stand out: the first pertains to the heavily urban provenance of this migration and the second emphasizes the relatively educated and skilled background of colonial Dutch migration. This second finding contradicts earlier assumptions about the Dutch colonies as a place where undesirable elements were shovelled off. The current article further discusses findings of projects on Swiss and Luxembourger military migrations to the Netherlands Indies. An important difference between Dutch military migrants and those from other European countries regards the role of their service within a life course. While Dutch colonial military service was often the first step to make a career in colonial Indonesia, for Europeans from abroad it was rather a move of desperation as well as an attempt to earn some money that would enable them to start a business and a family in their country of birth. Their migration experience was rather a 'life cycle' migration. The article finally describes attempts to extend the HSN to the Dutch citizens born in the Netherlands Indies.</p> Ulbe Bosma Copyright (c) 2021 Ulbe Bosma https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 41 45 10.51964/hlcs9565 Endless Digging and Endless Picking. Sex Ratios and Gendered Labour in Surinamese Plantations, 1830–1863 https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9566 <p>In this article we study the question why the sex ratio among the enslaved population of plantation workers reversed from a male to a female surplus between 1830 and the abolition of slavery in 1863. We use the Historical Database of Suriname (HDS) to answer this question in three steps. First, we give a broad overview of the changing sex ratios in the various Surinamese regions between 1838 and 1861. Second, we study the age structure on three plantations in the district Coronie in 1830 in detail. Finally, we use muster rolls available for the Catharina Sophia plantation in the period 1848–1849 to analyse the gendered division of labour. Our results indicate that both the male surpluses during the 1830s and the subsequent skew of the sex ratios towards females were the effects of a gendered division of labour, in which plantation managers preferred male labourers for heavy and unhealthy work in the construction and upkeep of plantation polders. This led to an excess mortality of enslaved men.</p> Cornelis W. van Galen Björn Quanjer Matthias Rosenbaum-Feldbrügge Matthijs Kraijo Copyright (c) 2021 Cornelis W. van Galen, Björn Quanjer, Matthias Rosenbaum-Feldbrügge, Matthijs Kraijo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 46 52 10.51964/hlcs9566 A 'Kees' Study on Nominal Record Linkage https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9567 <p>This paper describes a case study on nominal record linkage on data from the Mandemakers family. It is demonstrated how names from birth, marriage and death certificates can be used for fast, probabilistic, ego-based record linkage, with the help of year of birth to arrive at unique identification. The procedure includes name standardization to overcome variation in spelling and the use of probabilities of combinations of given names and surnames, computed from the digitized 19th century Dutch vital register.</p> Gerrit Bloothooft Copyright (c) 2021 Gerrit Bloothooft https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 53 58 10.51964/hlcs9567 Automating Historical Source Transcription https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9568 <p>Transcribing the 1950 Norwegian census with 3.3 million person records and linking it to the Central Population Register (CPR) provides longitudinal information about significant population groups during the understudied period of the mid-20th century. Since this source is closed to the public, we receive no help from genealogists and rather use machine learning techniques to semi-automate the transcription. First the scanned manuscripts are split into individual cells and multiple names are divided. After the birthdates were transcribed manually in India, a lookup routine searches for families with matching sets of birthdates in the 1960 census and the CPR. After manual checks with GUI routines, the names are copied to the text version of the 1950 census, also storing the links to the CPR. Other fields like occupations or gender contain numeric or letter codes and are transcribed wholesale with routines interpreting the layout of the graphical images. Work employing these methods has also started on the 1930 census, which is the last of the Norwegian censuses to be transcribed.</p> Gunnar Thorvaldsen Copyright (c) 2021 Gunnar Thorvaldsen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 59 63 10.51964/hlcs9568 Constructing SHiP and an International Historical Coding System for Causes of Death https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9569 <p>SHiP is a network of European researchers studying mortality dynamics in port cities across Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries. All members make use of unique individual-level cause-of-death data for roughly the period 1850–1950 which allows the study of mortality to move beyond what was captured in nineteenth-century highly-aggregated national statistics. Apart from registering the individual cause of death, most datasets provide a wealth of information, such as name and address of the deceased, date of death, his/her age, sex, marital status, and religion and occupation of the deceased. Port cities are viewed as 'gateways of disease' in the same way that airports today function as hubs for the transmission of infectious diseases. The SHiP network aims to study the particular epidemiological profiles of the port cities in a truly comparative fashion across the different European maritime areas. To that end the SHiP team members have embarked upon the construction of a joint coding scheme, called ICD10h, which assigns codes to a large number of causes of death in a systematic way. Its main features are that the ICD10h coding scheme can deal well with large numbers of historical disease descriptions, from different linguistic areas in Europe, while at the same time it is able to connect to current day disease patterns.</p> Angélique Janssens Copyright (c) 2021 Angélique Janssens https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 64 70 10.51964/hlcs9569 Reflections on the Intermediate Data Structure (IDS) https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9570 <p>The Intermediate Data Structure (IDS) encourages sharing historical life course data by storing data in a common format. To encompass the complexity of life histories, IDS relies on data structures that are unfamiliar to most social scientists. This article examines four features of IDS that make it flexible and expandable: the Entity-Attribute-Value model, the relational database model, embedded metadata, and the Chronicle file. I also consider IDS from the perspective of current discussions about sharing data across scientific domains. We can find parallels to IDS in other fields that may lead to future innovations.</p> George Alter Copyright (c) 2021 George Alter https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 71 75 10.51964/hlcs9570 Reflections on the Use of the Intermediate Data Structure (IDS) in Historical Demographic Research https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9571 <p>The Intermediate Data Structure (IDS) was developed as a strategy aimed at standardizing the dissemination of micro-level historical demographic data. The structure provides a common and clear data strategy which facilitates studies that consider several databases, and the development and exchange of software. Based on my own experiences from working with the IDS, in this article I provide reflections on the use of IDS to create datasets for analysis and to conduct comparative demographic research.</p> Luciana Quaranta Copyright (c) 2021 Luciana Quaranta https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 76 80 10.51964/hlcs9571 LONGPOP and IDS. Personal reflections on our collaboration With Kees Mandemakers. https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9572 <p>The Leuven research team working on historical demography is grateful for their opportunity to have collaboratively and intensively worked with Professor Dr. Kees Mandemakers over an extended period of time. We wish him a wonderful emeritus status, not only in academia, but also in the warm nest of his family, relatives, children, and grandchildren. The three of us have known Kees for some time, but most closely since 2014, when we became formally engaged as project partners under the so-called LONGPOP-project, an EU funded Marie Curie grant, named&nbsp;Methodologies and Data mining techniques for the analysis of Big Data based on Longitudinal Population and Epidemiological Registers. The importance of our close professional relationship is best demonstrated by our work in producing the COR*-IDS 2020 database. The historical demographic dataset for the Antwerp arrondissement, a letter sample COR*-2010, recorded total sample size of +/- 33,000 residents of Antwerp for nearly seven decades and was already available. The LONGPOP project began in Autumn 2016, setting in motion a collaboration between ourselves at KU Leuven and Kees and his colleagues at the IISH. From the outset, we had purposefully worked closely with Kees' team, utilising their premier expertise in database management and the IDS towards the new release of our database, the Antwerp COR*-IDS dataset. Here we set out our recollections of that intellectual process, encompassing the personal and professional reflections of our close working relationship.</p> Sam Jenkinson Hideko Matsuo Koen Matthijs Copyright (c) 2021 Sam Jenkinson, Hideko Matsuo, Koen Matthijs https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 81 85 10.51964/hlcs9572 The Rhythm of Conceptions. Seasonality of Births in Taiwan and the Netherlands, 1800–1940 https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9573 <p>The seasonality of births provides us with insights into the economic, cultural, and biological effects on the private lives of our predecessors in time. This comparison between two culturally very different societies results in the conclusion that there is an amazing geographic and historical stability in the patterns of seasonality in conceptions, both in Taiwan and in the Netherlands. Economic and cultural variables only have a minor influence. The fact that a biological variable like temperature is so dominant in the Taiwanese case suggests that future studies may benefit from focusing more on the biological determinants of human behaviour.</p> Theo Engelen Copyright (c) 2021 Theo Engelen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 86 90 10.51964/hlcs9573 Medicalisation of Birth in Transylvania in the Second Half of the 19th Century. A Subject to be Investigated https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9574 <p>The role played by midwives during modernity deserves increased attention. Ethnic and confessional minorities often displayed starkly different patterns in the selection of these instrumental figures. More than that, the differences between the official reports and the community behavior recorded at ground level suggest a major gap between theory and practice. In theory, the province of Transylvania was well provided with medical care, midwives included. Data collected into the Historical Population Database of Transylvania reveals the fact that most women were assisted at birth by handywomen, the traditional, unskilled midwives. A research tool like a historical population database could help the scholars to address the issue of birth medicalisation, starting from the main research question: can we discuss the medicalisation of birth given that more than half of the women assisted in the delivery of just one child?</p> Luminiţa Dumănescu Ioan Bolovan Copyright (c) 2021 Luminiţa Dumănescu, Ioan Bolovan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 91 95 10.51964/hlcs9574 Born Dead or Alive? Revisiting the Definition of Stillbirths in Norway https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9575 <p>Since 1947 there has been a common understanding among Norwegian historians and demographers that stillbirths registered in the country prior to 1839 included infants who were born alive but died within 24 hours. This paper shows that a revision of this definition is necessary. During the first half of the 19th century, several memoranda, revisions and circulars were distributed by the Danish-Norwegian authorities — and Norwegian authorities after 1814 —, with the purpose of collecting and then improving the registration of stillbirths. After a close reading of these documents, I find no indication that the '24 hours of life' limit was explicitly included in the definition of stillbirths at any time prior to 1839. Instead, 'first day deaths' were given a separate column in the registration forms returned by the priests, midwives and district medical officers who recorded vital events. However, the design of these forms was inconsistent between 1806 and 1831.</p> Hilde Leikny Sommerseth Copyright (c) 2021 Hilde Leikny Sommerseth https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 96 100 10.51964/hlcs9575 Maternal Life-Histories of Multiple Birth Mothers Compared to Singleton Only Mothers in 19th and Early 20th Century Netherlands https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9576 <p>Research on mothers of twins suggests they have a more robust phenotype compared to singleton only mothers. Historical demographic microdata can be of additional value in studying differences in reproductive behaviour and survival of their offspring between multiple birth mothers and singleton only mothers. However, the number of such studies in historical populations is limited. This study aims to explore the possibilities to study maternal life-histories of multiple birth mothers compared to singleton only mothers using microdata on 19th and early 20th century Netherlands from the HSN/LINKS database. In line with studies on other historical populations, our results confirm multiple birth mothers on average had their first birth at younger ages, their last birth at older ages, longer reproductive lifespans, shorter inter-birth intervals, and higher lifetime fertility than singleton only mothers.</p> Peter Ekamper Frans van Poppel Copyright (c) 2021 Peter Ekamper, Frans van Poppel https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 101 105 10.51964/hlcs9576 Heterogeneity in ‘High Fertility’ Societies. Insights From Compositional Demography https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9577 <p>Demographic transition theory has been conducive to a rather dichotomous view of global fertility: traditional versus modern, high versus low fertility. The knowledge that high fertility could be achieved by subpopulations with different characteristics and reproductive behaviors somehow vanished from (historical) demographers' attention. This study unpacks heterogeneity in a 'high fertility' society, i.e. 19th-century Zeeland, the Netherlands. Sequence and cluster analysis were employed to distinguish groups with disparate reproductive trajectories with data from Genlias/LINKS including 15,014 full birth histories and 87,204 observed live births over the period 1811–1911. Multilevel binomial logistic regression models of membership of the two discerned high fertility subgroups were then estimated. The 'Traditional 1' subpopulation, with 10.5 children per woman on average, was composed of skilled, unskilled, and farm workers living in rural areas. Couples married early and were characterized by large spousal age gaps. The 'Traditional 2' subpopulation had on average 7.2 children per woman, more often lived in towns, married significantly later, and had more equal gender relations. Compositional demography, revealing subpopulations with divergent cultures of marital self-restraint and reproductive management, not only nuances previous (historical) demographic findings, but may well offer more tools to develop family planning and reproductive health policies than the demographic transition model does.</p> Hilde Bras Copyright (c) 2021 Hilde Bras https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 106 111 10.51964/hlcs9577 Women Born to Older Mothers Have Reduced Fertility. Evidence From a Natural Fertility Population https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9578 <p>Are daughters of older mothers less fertile? The human mutation rate is high and increases with chronological age. As female oocytes age, they become less functional, reducing female chances at successful reproduction. Increased oocyte mutation loads at advanced age may be passed on to offspring, decreasing fertility among daughters born to older mothers. In this paper we study the effects of maternal ageing on her daughter's fertility, including total number of children, age at last birth, and neonatal mortality among her children. We study fertility histories of two generations of women from mutually exclusive families from a pre-demographic transition historical population in the Dutch province of Zeeland. Using mixed effect Poisson and linear models to take within family (sibling) relations into account, we show that among married daughters fertility is reduced for those who were born to mothers with an advanced maternal age, resulting in fewer children ever born and earlier ages at last birth. We do not find consistent evidence for effects on neonatal mortality. These results may indicate that women born to older mothers are negatively affected by their mothers' increased age.</p> Niels van den Berg Ingrid K. van Dijk Rick J. Mourits Copyright (c) 2021 Niels van den Berg, Ingrid K. van Dijk, Rick J. Mourits https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 112 118 10.51964/hlcs9578 Grammar of Difference. General Education in the Netherlands and Java, 1800-1940 https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9579 <p>This contribution compares developments in school enrolment and public investments in primary education in the Netherlands and its most important colony in the 19th century: the Netherlands East Indies, more specifically the island of Java. Despite being part of the same Empire, conditions in both regions were very different, with the metropole having already quite high enrolment rates from the beginning of the period studied (the early 19th century) compared to very low school attendance in the colony. For long, the colonial government left indigenous education in Java to religious and private initiatives, whereas primary schooling in the Netherlands was increasingly financed and regulated. Rising interest for public schooling in the colony, including some government investment in the first decades of the 20th century did lead to some changes, but these were insufficient to prevent Dutch and Javanese children from experiencing a fundamentally different educational upbringing.</p> Elise van Nederveen Meerkerk Copyright (c) 2021 Elise van Nederveen Meerkerk https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 119 123 10.51964/hlcs9579 The Roots of the Obesity Boom. The Relationship Between Overweight and Educational Level Among Dutch Men, 1950–1979 https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9580 <p>While in modern, high-income populations, obesity is associated with being from a low socio-economic background, this may not have always been the case. We test the relationship between obesity and educational level (as a proxy for socio-economic status) in a historical cohort of Dutch military conscripts, from the conscription years 1950–1979. We find that in the 1950s cohort, being in tertiary education was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of being overweight. In contrast, in the 1970s cohort, being in tertiary education was significantly associated with a decreased likelihood of being overweight. We find evidence that the prevalence of obesity remained broadly similar among more highly educated men, while it increased among men of a lower educational level. This likely contributed to the overall rise in the obesity rate. Our findings echo other studies that find a crossover in education’s relationship to BMI as populations become wealthier and obesity rates rise.</p> Björn Quanjer Kristina Thompson Copyright (c) 2021 Björn Quanjer, Kristina Thompson https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 124 129 10.51964/hlcs9580 The Emergence of the Dutch Housewife Revised. How Shifts in Local Labour Market Structures Shaped Dutch Unmarried Women’s Labour Force Participation, 1812–1929 https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9581 <p>Most studies on the long-term development of female labour force participation argue that social norms and rising wages were key drivers. However, the majority of these conclusions apply to married women. Instead, this study zooms in on <em>unmarried</em> women. Based on nearly 2 million marriage records that have been digitised by Kees Mandemakers' LINKS project, it shows that there were large regional differences in the levels of labour force participation that were closely connected to local job opportunities. This research concludes that even though social norms and income levels were indeed important, local sectoral employment shares were the key driver of Dutch unmarried women's work during the long-19th century.</p> Corinne Boter Copyright (c) 2021 Corinne Boter https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 130 134 10.51964/hlcs9581 Simple Sources for Complex Problems. Where Did Californians Come From in 1940? https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9582 <p>Kees Mandemakers has been a leader in the study of linked population data, but not every society has the sources or resources to create linked data. This essay is about one approach that derives from a source that does not offer all that is possible with linked longitudinal data, but that nonetheless has significant value. Migration to California is one of the persistent refrains encountered in both popular and academic works about the history of the 1930s. The reason for this is simple. In literature and the arts, images of that migration are well known, but while those themes are accurate, they have not been sufficiently studied. My approach is to study migration using census data that ask a retrospective question about where each respondent lived five years earlier, in this case tracking migration from 1935 to 1940. Focusing on migrants to California and the paths that they took, I show that there was migration from much of the U.S. especially metropolitan areas across the country, from states near to California, and from places subject to the severe environmental shocks of the 1930s. I also show that while much of the general view of migration to California focuses on agricultural workers who left their homes in search of farm work further west, the large majority of migrants to California went to metropolitan destinations and worked as much in industry and commerce as in agriculture.</p> Myron P. Gutmann Copyright (c) 2021 Myron P. Gutmann https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 135 139 10.51964/hlcs9582 Measuring Migration Status Based on the Place of Marriage Overestimates the Share of Male Migrants in Historical Populations. Evidence From Dutch Marriage Certificates https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9583 <p>Thanks to the construction of large databases such as LINKS and GENLIAS based on Dutch civil certificates, our knowledge of individual demographic behavior in the past has improved significantly. However, the use of such research infrastructures also introduces some potential pitfalls, as these databases do not contain all information available from the original sources. For instance, variables that are available on the original source but lacking in LINKS are the places of residence of the bride and the groom at marriage. A common practice among researchers using LINKS and GENLIAS is therefore to identify migrants by comparing an individual’s birth place with the place of marriage. The place of marriage, however, is not necessarily identical to the place of residence, because couples traditionally contracted their marriage in the bride's or bride's parents' municipality of residence. It is therefore particularly likely that grooms are erroneously considered as migrants even though they had never moved before marriage. In this paper we explore whether this poses a problem to studies using the place of marriage as an equivalent to the place of residence. This will be achieved with the help of the marriage certificates release from the Historical Sample of the Netherlands (HSN), which, unlike LINKS, contains both the place of marriage of the couple and the residence of the bride and groom, and allows us to compare the findings derived from both approaches. The analyses show that identifying migrants based on place of marriage causes indeed a significant overestimation of male migrants, but not of female migrants. We therefore suggest the use of a couple's place of first childbirth as a robustness check to avoid overestimating male migration in the past.</p> Matthias Rosenbaum-Feldbrügge Paul Puschmann Copyright (c) 2021 Matthias Rosenbaum-Feldbrügge, Paul Puschmann https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 140 144 10.51964/hlcs9583 Retracing Hotbeds of the 1918–19 Influenza Pandemic. Spatial Differences in Seasonal Excess Mortality in the Netherlands https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9584 <p>A century ago, the 1918–19 influenza pandemic swept across the globe, taking the lives of over 50 million people. We use data from the Dutch civil registry to show which regions in the Netherlands were most affected by the 1918–19 pandemic. We do so for the entire 1918 year as well as the first, second, and third wave that hit the Netherlands in summer 1918, autumn 1918, and winter 1919. Our analyses show that excess mortality was highest in Oost-Brabant, Zuid-Limburg, Noord-Holland, and Drenthe, Groningen, and Overijssel, whereas excess mortality was low in Zuid-Beveland, the Utrechtse Heuvelrug, and the Achterhoek. Furthermore, neighboring municipalities resembled one another in how severely they were affected, but only for the second wave that hit the Netherlands in autumn 1918. This non-random spatial distribution of excess mortality in autumn 1918 suggests that regional differences affected the spread of the disease. </p> Rick J. Mourits Ruben Schalk Albert Meroño-Peñuela Joe Raad Auke Rijpma Bram van den Hout Richard L. Zijdeman Copyright (c) 2021 Rick J. Mourits, Ruben Schalk, Albert Meroño-Peñuela, Joe Raad, Auke Rijpma, Bram van den Hout, Richard L. Zijdeman https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 145 150 10.51964/hlcs9584 Disability, Mortality and Causes of Death in a 19th-Century Swedish Population https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9585 <p>Our study aims to find how disability affected human health in historical time through an examination of individuals' mortality risks and death causes. Swedish parish registers digitized by the Demographic Data Base (DDB) enable us to account for a relatively high number of persons reported to have disabilities, and to compare them with a group of non-disabled cases. The findings concern a 19th-century population of 35,610 individuals in the Sundsvall region, Sweden, and show that disability increased the premature mortality risk substantially. Disability seems to have jeopardized men’s survival in particular, and perhaps due to gendered expectations concerning the type of work men and women became less able to perform when disabled. Our study of death causes indicates that their deaths were less characterized by infectious diseases than among the non-disabled group, as a possible consequence of lower exposure to infections due to the way in which disability could impede opportunities for interaction with peers in the community. In all, our mortality findings suggest that disability was associated with poor living conditions and limited possibilities to participate in work and social life, which further tend to have accumulated across life and resulted in ill health indicated by premature death.</p> Lotta Vikström Sören Edvinsson Erling Häggström Lundevaller Copyright (c) 2021 Lotta Vikström, Sören Edvinsson, Erling Häggström Lundevaller https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 151 155 10.51964/hlcs9585 Surviving in Overijssel. An Analysis of Life Expectancy, 1812–1912. https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9586 <p>The rise in life expectancy is one of the main processes of social change in the 19th century. In the Netherlands, regional differences in life expectancy, and their development, were huge. Therefore, studies on average life expectancy or studies, which examine the whole of the Netherlands do not fully capture the differential determinants of this process. This study focuses on social, economic, and geographic differences in life expectancy in 19th-century Overijssel using the Historical Sample of the Netherlands (HSN). Exploiting Cox regression, the influence of several factors on life expectancy are investigated. The article shows that birth cohort, urbanisation, and gender had an important relation with life expectancy in 19th-century Overijssel, while industrialisation, religion, and inheritance customs were not associated with age at death.</p> Sander Wennemers Hilde Bras Copyright (c) 2021 Sander Wennemers, Hilde Bras https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 156 161 10.51964/hlcs9586 How Pope Pius IX Stimulated 'Pillarization' in the Netherlands https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9587 <p>In 1853 an important step in the development of the Roman Catholic Church in the Netherlands was set. On initiative of the Vatican and despite vehement resistance of the orthodox Protestant part of the population (known as the April-movement), the episcopal hierarchy in the church was restored. By choosing Utrecht in the heart of the protestant Netherlands and not Den Bosch in the Catholic South of the country as the seat of the new archbishop, the Vatican practised an offensive, national strategy. Unintendedly, the Papal choice for Utrecht contributed to the later on development of the non-territorial, personalistic solution for the Dutch multicultural society at that time: the <em>verzuiling</em>.</p> Hans Knippenberg Copyright (c) 2021 Hans Knippenberg https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 162 166 10.51964/hlcs9587 Intergenerational and Marriage Mobility of University Professors in the Netherlands During the 19th Century https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9588 <p>In this study we ask the question to what extent 19th-century university professors were a closed occupational group in the sense that they had little intergenerational and marriage mobility. We do so in honor of Kees Mandemakers, who is about to retire as a professor, but whose younger family members may follow in his footsteps. We derive competing hypotheses from cultural capital theory and the meritocracy thesis and test them using civil marriage records for the period 1813–1922 in six Dutch provinces (N = 1,180,976 marriages). Although only 4.4% of all university professors had a father in the same occupation, the odds ratio of 331 shows that this is much more likely than to be expected under independence. Similarly, professors were much more likely to marry the daughter of a professor. Compared to other elite occupations the intergenerational immobility of professors was not especially high, but their marriage immobility was exceptional. Cultural capital theory receives more support than the meritocracy thesis. We hope that Mandemakers, Mandemakers and Mandemakers will accept the challenge and investigate whether these findings can be generalized to contemporary society.</p> Ineke Maas Marco H. D. van Leeuwen Antonie Knigge Copyright (c) 2021 Ineke Maas, Marco H. D. van Leeuwen, Antonie Knigge https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 167 171 10.51964/hlcs9588 Retirement, Home Care and the Importance of Gender https://hlcs.nl/article/view/9589 <p>In recent decades elderly care policies in Sweden have been characterized by a marked shift from institutional care to home care. Previous research has highlighted how this has resulted in the elderly receiving care at a higher age and increased reliance on family and kin for providing care. Using register data for the entire Swedish population aged 65+ in 2016, we analyze how home care services in contemporary Sweden distribute regarding individual-level factors such as gender, health status, living arrangements, and closeness to kin. By far, the most critical determinants of receiving home care are age, health status, and whether the elderly are living alone or not. Although our results do not discard that access to kin have become more important, our results show that childlessness and geographical proximity to adult children play a minor role for differentials in the reception of home care. The main conduit for informal care instead takes the form of spousal support. Gender plays a role in how living arrangements influence the probability of receiving home care, where cohabiting women are significantly more likely to receive care than cohabiting men. We interpret this as a result of women, on average, being younger than their male partners and more easily adopting caregivers' roles. This gendered pattern is potentially explained by the persistence of more traditional gender roles prevailing in older cohorts.</p> Anders Brändström Glenn Sandström Copyright (c) 2021 Anders Brändström, Glenn Sandström https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 172 179 10.51964/hlcs9589